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In drug discovery, confirmation of in-cell target engagement is a critical component of the drug development process. Confirming that a drug candidate engages its proposed target in the cell and determining the concentration at which it exerts the desired effect(s) fulfill fundamental criteria for translation to activity and efficacy in its target tissue. Thermal shift assays (TSA) are regularly used by industry and academia to uncover or confirm interactions using purified proteins. Recently, this type of assay has been adapted to a cellular format and is called the cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA). In this application note, quantitative and reproducible CETSA data generated with ProteinSimple’s Wes instrument (CETSA-Wes) are presented. This assay verifies drug target binding, and given its quantitative nature, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is also calculated.
In this how-to-guide, we'll show you how to use the Total Protein Detection Module (DM-TP01) with any immunoassay detection module of your choosing to get total protein and immunoassay data in the same run.
In this application note, we’re honing in on the biomarker verification and validation steps. Proof-of-concept data was generated to demonstrate how Simple Western and Simple Plex assays data give similar trends and work together to give you fast, sensitive, and precise information about your biomarkers of interest.
Scientists measure serum antibody levels to confirm immune responses against a bacteria to diagnose infections, to test for antibody production after vaccination, and to detect the presence of autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases. Traditional Western blots are often used to detect these antibodies, but testing with Western blots means a lot of hands-on time. After the antigen of interest is separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred to a membrane, each lane has to be cut into individual strips so patient serum samples can be individually tested for the presence of specific antibodies. Then you have to process and analyze them manually.
Simple Western assays happen in individual capillaries, and everything from sample separation to data analysis is completely automated. No more cutting individual strips, washing and incubating them, or lining them all up with a molecular weight marker before detection. Just pipette your sample into the wells of your assay plate, set up your run, and you're done! And all that manual data analysis is gone too — Compass for Simple Western does it all for you. Did we mention you only need 10 µL of diluted serum per data point? That means you'll get a lot more data points for every 1 µL of neat serum.
In this application note, we used Simple Western to detect autoantibodies in lupus patient serum as a model system to generate proof-of-concept data for the assay. But you can use this method any time you need to detect and quantitate specific serum antibodies. In fact, check out how researchers are using this assay to detect Salmonella antibodies without having to cut blots into individual strips.
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a powerful tool to identify and isolate a pure sample of the cell type you're
interested in. But, proteomic studies with LCM samples are really restricted by the small amounts of tissue collected with
each capture since there just isn't much to work with. You often have to use the entire sample captured for traditional
Western blot analysis and that only leaves you with one data point! So, researchers often use 2D Electrophoresis and
mass spectrometry instead to max out the amount of data they can generate. Both of these methods have their own
limitations when it comes to ease-of-use and reproducibility though. Immunohistochemistry is also used to analyze LCM
samples as it's a more accessible technique, but it really doesn't give you a lot of info either.
Simple Western is an automated capillary-based immunoassay that changes the proteomic research game. You only
need 1-10 µL of LCM sample for each data point, so you'll get more data points for each sample you collect. Not to
mention the sensitivity that comes with it will even let you analyze proteins you couldn't previously do with traditional
Western blot. And it's all wrapped up in a simple workflow that minimizes your hands-on time. Simple Western is a
sensitive, easy-to-use analytical tool that ups the ante on protein analysis with LCM samples.
In this application note, we'll show you two examples of how Simple Western changed what researchers could do with
their precious LCM samples for the better
The Simple Western Immunoassay is the gel-free, blot-free and hands-free solution for researchers looking for a better way to get their Western blot data. The simple fact that you get analyzed data in just three hours with only 30 minutes of hands-on time changes things forever!
Peggy enables researchers to follow up a size-based immunoassay with a charge-based assay on one platform using the same sample. The charge-based analysis provides an information-rich, complementary data set, elucidating ratios of protein variants and providing leads for biomarker development. Like other Simple Western products, Peggy provides a fully automated solution, from loading samples
all the way to peak analysis.
Wes takes the benefits of Simple Western assays a step further by simplifying their workflow with pre-filled plates and disposable capillary cartridges. This application note gives an overview of how to transfer a traditional Western blot assay to Wes.
Monophospho- and diphospho-ERK isoforms are not resolved by traditional Western blot analysis, and the sample quantity required is relatively large. The Firefly ERK1/ERK2 assay can distinguish and quantify unphosphorylated, mono and dual-phosphorylated isoforms of ERK1 and ERK2, allowing a more accurate determination of ERK activation than Western blots provide.
RNA interference (RNAi) is an RNA-dependent gene silencing mechanism that can affect the expression of specific genes by inhibiting translation or suppressing transcription epigenetically. Using Firefly assays, RNAi effects such as impact on phosphorylation or silencing can be studied functionally in samples as small as 100 cells. An additional benefit of the small samples size is that a variety of conditions can be studies in a single assay.